A Basic Web Application with Rust and Actix-web

This post and example were based on Actix 0.7

I’ve been playing around with Rust quite a bit for the last several months and I have been loving it.

There is definitely a rather steep learning curve compared to learning other languages, but when it clicks and something compiles, it tends to work well in my experience so far, which is very rewarding.

One thing I like to do when learning a new language is to do something I’m conceptually familiar with, to see how it looks in the new language. This is often either a small CLI tool or a web application. In this case, we’ll take a look at a basic web application in Rust.

There are several ways to go about this in Rust - there are several frameworks with different strengths. For this example, I decided to use Actix, because it seems mature and well documented/maintained.

In general, Rust is definitely not at the stage Java, node.js, Ruby or Go are when it comes to the Web ecosystem, but there is steady progress, which is documented here.

Keep in mind that I’m both new to Rust and very new to Actix, so while what I threw together here works and does what I want it to do, it might not be the best/most optimal way of doing things. ;)

The web application we’ll look at in this post exposes a small REST API, which proxies the incoming requests to another API.

In this example, I’ll be using the Timeular Public API as a proxy target, because I’m very familiar with it. Anyone can create a free account and create API credentials, but the concepts of this post can be applied to any other web API as well.

The API we’ll create is the following:

We’ll also take a look at how to containerize the application using docker.

The actix framework handles requests asynchronously, but in this case the handlers themselves are not implemented asynchronously, for example using futures. I decided to keep it simple at first, but there will be a follow-up post, in which I will convert the handlers to an asynchronous model as well.

Alright, Let’s go. :)

Setup and Configuration

In order to configure the service, in this case to set the Timeular credentials, we use the envconfig crate, which basically converts given environment variables to a defined Rust struct.

In our case the configuration for it looks like this:

pub struct Config {
    #[envconfig(from = "API_KEY", default = "")]
    pub api_key: String,

    #[envconfig(from = "API_SECRET", default = "")]
    pub api_secret: String,

And then, in main, we call:

let config = match Config::init() {
    Ok(v) => v,
    Err(e) => panic!("Could not read config from environment: {}", e),

For logging we use the slog crate. I won’t go into any details on logging, but there are several ways to set it up. The way we will use in our application is this:

pub fn setup_logging() -> slog::Logger {
    let decorator = slog_term::TermDecorator::new().build();
    let drain = slog_term::CompactFormat::new(decorator).build().fuse();
    let drain = slog_async::Async::new(drain).build().fuse();
    slog::Logger::root(drain, o!())

Which is taken directly from the documentation and creates an efficient, asynchronous way of logging.

Also, in order to make authenticated requests to the Timeular API, we need to log in first. Our application does this before starting up the web server and then passes the returned JSON Web Token to the handlers.

The login works like this:

let jwt = match external::get_jwt(&api_key, &api_secret) {
    Ok(v) => v,
    Err(e) => panic!("Could not get the JWT: {}", e),

Further down the post, we’ll look at the actual get_jwt method in the external package, which does the login request, but for now, let’s just say this works and we have a valid JWT.

Alright, those were the essentials - now we come to the actual actix web server.

Actix has the concept of State, which can be shared across handlers. This state object will be copied for every handler and we will put our logging handle and our JWT in there:

App::with_state(AppState {
    jwt: jwt.to_string(),
    log: log.clone(),

Then, we define our routes for the endpoints specified in the beginning of the post:

server::new(move || {
    App::with_state(AppState {
        jwt: jwt.to_string(),
        log: log.clone(),
    .scope("/rest/v1", |v1_scope| {
        v1_scope.nested("/activities", |activities_scope| {
                .resource("", |r| {
                        .with_config(handlers::create_activity, |cfg| {
                .resource("/{activity_id}", |r| {
                        .with_config(handlers::edit_activity, |cfg| {
    .resource("/health", |r| {

So this snippet of code creates a new actix web server on port 8080. First, we add our state object and then we define a /rest/v1 scope, under which all defined routes will reside.

The next sub routes are / and /{activity_id}, which splits up the handlers between endpoints dealing with a specified activity and endpoints which don’t.

Now that we defined this structure, the actual endpoints are rather simple, they are defined using the HTTP method such as http::Method::GET and then a handler function is provided, e.g.: handlers::get_activities.

For the POST and PATCH handlers, we also add a custom error handler called handlers::json_error_handler, which we will take a look at later on. This error handler basically deals with JSON parsing errors gracefully.

Also, we create a simple /health endpoint, which just returns OK if the service is up.

External API calls

Before we get into the actual handlers, we will look at the external package, which is basically just a very basic HTTP client for the Timeular API.

For making HTTP requests, we’ll use the reqwest crate, which has a very simple API.

We won’t look at all the requests, as they’re rather similar, but the full code is on GitHub (link at the bottom).

The basic API of the external package is to have one function for each individual request, such as get_activities:

pub fn get_activities(jwt: &str) -> Result<ActivitiesResponse, Error> {
    let activities_path = format!("{}/activities", BASE_URL);
    let result = get(&activities_path, jwt)?;
    serde_json::from_str(&result).map_err(|e| format_err!("could not parse json, reason: {}", e))

These functions are actually rather simple. First, we define the path to request and then pass it and our JSON Web Token to a helper method for the HTTP method we’re using, which looks like this:

fn get(path: &str, jwt: &str) -> Result<String, Error> {
    let client = reqwest::Client::new();
    let res = client
        .header("Authorization", format!("Bearer {}", jwt))
        .context("error during get request")?;

Here, we create a new reqwest client, configure a request and send it. At the end, we parse the result as follows:

fn parse_result(mut res: Response) -> Result<String, Error> {
    let mut buf: Vec<u8> = vec![];
    if res.status().is_success() {
        res.copy_to(&mut buf)
            .context("could not copy response into buffer")?;
    } else {
        return Err(format_err!("request error: {}", res.status()));
    let result = std::str::from_utf8(&buf)?;

This helper method basically just parses the given response to a String.

As you could see above in get_activities, we then parse this String to a serde data object called ActivitiesResponse, which is simply a list of Activities:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
pub struct ActivitiesResponse {
    pub activities: Vec<ActivityResponse>,

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug, Clone)]
#[serde(rename_all = "camelCase")]
pub struct ActivityResponse {
    pub id: String,
    pub name: String,
    pub color: String,
    pub integration: String,
    pub device_side: Option<Number>,

For each of these operations, the errors are handled and returned in the Result.

To also show an example of a request, which sends something to the server, we’ll also look at the above mentioned get_jwt method:

pub fn get_jwt(api_key: &str, api_secret: &str) -> Result<String, Error> {
    let mut body = HashMap::new();
    body.insert("apiKey", api_key);
    body.insert("apiSecret", api_secret);
    let jwt_path = format!("{}/developer/sign-in", BASE_URL);
    let result = post(&jwt_path, &body, "")?;
    let json: Result<SignInResponse, Error> = serde_json::from_str(&result)
        .map_err(|e| format_err!("could not parse json, reason: {}", e));

Basically, the incoming payload is simply converted to a HashMap and then passed to reqwest as a body, the rest is very similar to the example above.


Having just looked at the external API, the handlers are actually rather simple. We’ll look at both a simple GET request as well as a mutating POST request.

Again, we’ll look at the most simple handler function called get_activities:

pub fn get_activities(
    req: &HttpRequest<AppState>,
) -> Result<Json<ActivitiesResponse>, AnalyzerError> {
    let jwt = &req.state().jwt;
    let log = &req.state().log;
        .map_err(|e| {
            error!(log, "Get Activities ExternalServiceError {}", e);

The basic structure of all the handlers is, to get the logging handle and the JWT from the server state and to call the relevant external method, which then calls the Timeular API.

Additionally, if an error happens, that error is converted to a custom error type. To be able to do this, we need to implement the error:ResponseError trait of Actix:

impl error::ResponseError for AnalyzerError {
    fn error_response(&self) -> HttpResponse {
        match *self {
            AnalyzerError::ExternalServiceError => HttpResponse::InternalServerError()
                .body("external service error"),
            AnalyzerError::ActivityNotFoundError => HttpResponse::NotFound()
                .body("activity not found"),

Handlers in actix have to return something implementing actix-web’s Responder trait, which is quite flexible. For example, the /health endpoint simply returns a string:

pub fn health(_: &HttpRequest<AppState>) -> impl Responder {

The JSON endpoints however, return a Result<Json<DomainObject>, AnalyzerError>, where the DomainObject is the data object returned from the external API call, which is wrapped with actix-web’s Json type, automatically returning nice JSON to the caller.

Alright, now let’s look at an endpoint, which sends something to the API, create_activity:

pub fn create_activity(
    (req, activity): (HttpRequest<AppState>, Json<ActivityRequest>),
) -> Result<Json<ActivityResponse>, AnalyzerError> {
    let jwt = &req.state().jwt;
    let log = &req.state().log;
    info!(log, "creating activity {:?}", activity);
    external::create_activity(&activity, jwt)
        .map_err(|e| {
            error!(log, "Create Activity ExternalServiceError {}", e);

As you can see, it’s relatively similar, except for the Json<ActivityRequest>, which is passed to the handler:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
pub struct ActivityRequest {
    pub name: String,
    pub color: String,
    pub integration: String,

Passing this data object to the handler works basically automatically in actix. With Json<ActivityRequest> being in the signature of the handler, actix expects there to be a JSON payload, which needs to be parseable to the given data object.

The rest of the handler is the same as the above mentioned GET endpoint.

The json_error_handler was mentioned above, which deals with errors during parsing an incoming JSON payload. In order to do this, a custom error handler needs to be implemented like this:

pub fn json_error_handler(err: error::JsonPayloadError, _: &HttpRequest<AppState>) -> Error {
            .body(format!(r#"{{"error":"json error: {}"}}"#, err)),

Here, we create an error handler, which is used when a JsonPayloadError happens in actix. If this happens, we return a HTTP 400 error, telling the user that the JSON was not correct. This custom error handler is used for all endpoints, which receive a JSON payload.

That’s it. :)

Now we can just start up the server using cargo run with our credentials as environment variables and interact with our Timeular activities through this rust web application.

The full code can be found here.

Dockerizing the Application

In order to be able to use a web application such as this in a production setting, it would be nice to containerize it using docker. I used this Dockerfile to achieve this:

FROM ekidd/rust-musl-builder:nightly as builder
ADD . ./
RUN sudo chown -R rust:rust /home/rust
RUN cargo build --release

FROM alpine:latest
RUN apk --no-cache add ca-certificates
COPY --from=builder /home/rust/src/target/x86_64-unknown-linux-musl/release/analyzer /usr/local/bin/analyzer
CMD ["/usr/local/bin/analyzer"]

First, we build the application using the rust-musl-builder image and in a second step, we move the created linux binary to a plain alpine image and run it there.

This approach has the benefit, that the resulting image is very small and doesn’t include the whole Rust toolchain.


I’m still very much at the beginning of my journey with Rust and after the initial bit of frustration getting used to the borrow checker and the strict compiler, it has been a lot of fun and very rewarding.

Regarding the possibility to write web applications using Rust - I’d say the necessary libraries and tools are there, but it is of course not on the level of other languages yet in this regard.

However, there seems to be a lot of progress in this area, so I’m sure Rust will catch up over the next time, plus there’s a lot of other fun stuff you can do with rust besides building web applications. :)